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Four Sons of Horus

The Four Sons of Horus protected the innards of the deceased. In the Pyramid Texts, they help the king ascend to heaven. By the New Kingdom, the four are associated with protecting the body of Osiris and with the constellation of the the Great Bear.

From the late 18th Dynasty, the four are represented on lids of canopic jars (earlier canopic jars had human heads). When shown on coffins, Hapi (baboon headed) and Qebehsenuef (hawk headed) appear on the west, and Imsety (human headed) and Duamutef (jackal headed) on the east.

The Four can also be represented as amulets which were put on the mummified body.

They included:

Duamutef

Hapi

Imsety

Qebehsenuef

 

Further Reading:

Dodson, A. 1994. The canopic equipment of the kings of Egypt. London.

Taylor, J.H. 2001. Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt, London, 67-68.

 

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